Notes On Concept of Development for TET and CTET

Notes on Concept Of Development

Certain changes that occur in human beings between conception and death, these are the changes that appear in orderly ways and are relatively permanent in nature.

Difference between growth and development:
  1. Growth is related to change in the physical aspect of person whereas as development stands for the changes that leads to maturity.
  2. Growth is quantitative in nature whereas development is qualitative in nature.
  3. Growth can be measured but development can only be assessed.
  4. Growth is one part of development whereas development is linked with overall change in person’s growth.
  5. Development can occur without growth.

Stages of Development:
  1. Prenatal period: Until Birth
  2. Infancy: Birth to 2 weeks
  3. Babyhood: 2 weeks to 2 years
  4. Childhood: 2 to 10-12 years [Early childhood 2 to 6 years] and [Later childhood 6 to 12 years]
  5. Pre adolescence: Girls (11 to 13 years) and Boys (12 to 14 years)
  6. Adolescence: 13 to 17 years
  7. Later adolescence: 17 to 20 years
  8. Adulthood: 21 to 40 years
  9. Middle age: 40 to 60 years
  10. Old age: 60 onwards

Early childhood, later childhood and adolescence are critical for child’s overall development.
Development in Early Childhood (2 to 6 years):
Ready to go for pre-school or play school, they become self-centric, social life improves, very curious at this stage, love to experiment, observe the people around them, and show different behaviour at this stage.

Development in later Childhood (6 to 12 years):
Its elementary school stage, devote more time with the peers and parents, involves in academic activities, experience of this stage influence their later life, this stage is very significant in the development process.

Development in Adolescence (13 to 19 years):
Most critical stage of development, child faces social biological and personal changes, learn new behaviours.

Types of Development:
  1. Physical development: linked with physical aspects like height and weight.
  2. Personal development: individual personality changes as every individual is different and their ways of development are also different.
  3. Cognitive development: Development in the ability to think, reason and analyse.
  4. Social development:  Development of social aspect of child’s personality, emotional development
  5. Moral Development: Resolving our day to day conflicts are studied under moral development, our decision making ability considered under moral development.

Principles of Development:
  1. Principle of Change: development follows the principle of change.
  2. Principle of significance of Early Development: Experiences of a child in his/her early development are significant as healthy experiences leads to healthy development whereas negative experiences leads to unhealthy development.
  3. Principle of Predictability: development principles are predictable as we know the particular age at which children will learn to walk, speak and so on.
  4. Principle of interaction between heredity and environment: heredity and environment plays an important role in development. Heredity decides some limits on development whereas environmental influence completes the developmental process.
  5. Principle of Individual Differences: there is no fixed rate of development, as development occurs on the basis of individual differences. Individual personality changes as every individual is different and their ways of development are also different
  6. Principle of Expectations: there are some expectations from a child at each stage of development. For example, during infancy child learn to control physical actions whereas at school stage they learn to interact with peer group.
  7. Principle of Association of maturation and learning: biological growth and development is known as maturation.
  8. Principle of Continuation: Development is a continuous process that stops only with the life of a person.

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